Successful modern organizations use the motivation and intelligence of the individuals (“self-management”) and the strength of coordination based on the common goal (“self-organization”). Therefore, these organizations have less “managers”. However, in some situations the deployment of an interim manager is useful or necessary.The development of modern organizations is a process of continuous performance improvement. Through the power of self-direction and self-organization, employees can improve their own products and processes as they learn from their own mistakes and through direct contact with customers. Sometimes this evolutionary development is not sufficient and is a revolutionary breakthrough in the short-term needed. In other cases the organization is stuck in rigid ideas and a fresh perspective from outside needed. In these situations, an interim manager is of added value.After intervention by the interim manager, the organization comes back on its own power on the new or higher evolutionary path. In the long term evolution is a sustainable model because only with self-management and self-organization of its employees it creates a learning organization.